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About the history of India

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The oldest civilization of India was discovered accidentally. Kiln baked bricks found during mid 1800 by the British engineers aroused the curiosity of the archaeologists of the next century (in 1920). The bricks found while construction of railway lines at the location between Punjab and Karachi were found to be more than 5000 years old. Soon the ancient cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were discovered. These cities were once part of one of the oldest civilizations of the world – the Indus Civilization.

The Indus Valley Civilization

The civilization of Indus Valley can be traced back to about 3000 B.C. The people of this civilization built well planned cities where almost 30, 000 citizens resided. The ancient municipalities of Indus Valley had proper town planning and also had citadels and granaries. The roads of the cities were well developed and even in those ancient times the households had proper sewerage systems. The town of Mohenjadaro had a long canal that was connected to the sea. The Indus Valley had maritime trade relations with Mesopotamia. read more

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The Vedic Period in India

The Vedic Period roughly extended from about 1500 B.C to 500 B.C. The Indo – Aryan culture marks the Vedic Period in India. The sacred texts of Vedas were composed orally in Vedic Sanskrit. These holy texts are among the oldest texts in the world. This period marks the beginning of the Hinduism and the Vedic Civilization was established in India by the Aryans.

During the Vedic Period, the immigrants from Central Asia came to India and established their settlement. The Aryans were a tribe, speaking Indo- Aryan dialect. The Aryans invaded parts of India and extended their settlement mainly in the northern part of the country. They established their supremacy over the group of local people known as the Dasyus. read more

Rise of Buddhism in India

The 15th Century saw the emergence of a holy figure of Lord Buddha in India. He was known as Siddhartha Gautama in his early years. The religion of Buddhism was founded by him in India. It is believed that Siddhartha Goutam attained enlightenment in about 537 B.C and came to be known as Buddha. The preachings of Lord Buddha were in Pakrit dialect which helped the religion to reach out to the common mass in a great extent. Practicing non- violence was one of the major teachings of the religion. The teachings of Lord Buddha spread beyond India to other places like Tibet, East Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia and Sri Lanka.

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Persian and Greek Invasions in India

During the rule of Darius the Great, north western part of India became a part of the Achaemenid Empire in c. 520 B.C. These parts of the subcontinent is now parts of Pakistan and Eastern Afghanistan. The Persian rule continued for about 2 centuries.

The Achaemenid Empire and Asia Minor was conquered by Alexander the Great in about 326 B.C. Then he advanced towards the north- western frontiers of India. In the battle of Hydaspes Alexander the Great defeated King Puru and most of the parts of Punjab came under his subjugation. He also had confrontation with Gangaridai Empire in Bengal and with Nanda Empire of Magadha. Alexander decided to return as his army refused to face the huge Indian army and they mutinied near river Beas.

The Mughal Rule in India

The Mughal Empire was established by Babur in 1526. The Mughal reign in India lasted in India for about 200 years. At the Battle of Karnal, the Mughal army was defeated by Nader Shah in 1739. The empire started facing a downfall by 1707 and it finally came to an end with the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

The Mughal rule is marked by the reign of 6 influential emperors. Babur initiated the Mughal rule in India. He captured Delhi and parts of Punjab. After the death of Babur in 1530, his son Humayun took over the throne. But as a ruler, Humayun proved to be ineffective and he was succeeded by his son Akbar. He is considered to be the greatest of the Mughal rulers. read more

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The British Rule in India

The Portuguese came to Goa and started trade and commerce in this part of India by 1510. They also set up 3 colonies in India namely – Bassein, Mangalore and Diu. But the British took over the naval supremacy from the Portuguese by 1610. The East India Company set up their outpost in Surat. This incident marked the beginning of the British hegemony in the Indian subcontinent for a span of 300 years.

The East India Company achieved Dastaks or the license to carry on free trade in territories of Bengal from Farrukh Siyar in 1717. The Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the defeat of Siraj Ud Daullah – the Nawab of Bengal. He opposed the British against using permit for free trade in his province. read more